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Companion Planting Reference Guide: How and Why

Companion Planting Guide Resource Page
Garden Tower Project > Most Popular > Companion Planting Reference Guide: How and Why

Companion Planting Reference Guide: Why and How?

 

Companion planting allows you to select plants that benefit each other in a number of different ways; moreover, many common garden plants have allelopathic effects which means they can slow the growth of certain types of neighboring plants! 

Companion Planting Guide Resource Page

The composting vertical Garden Tower is the definition of a companion planting system — 50 plants in 4 square feet at six elevations guarantees plant-to-plant interactions at the stem and root levels. 

Here’s a fantastic go-to infographic to quickly reference for a reasonable understanding of which vegetables will thrive near to each other and which veggies you need to put a little space between:

(Click the image below for the readable full-resolution version!)

Companion planting infograhic for organic gardening

This infographic is from http://afristarfoundation.org/educational-resources/

Afristar Foundation develops educational resources for schools, community programs and adult education in the form posters, educational documentaries and informational booklets. We make use of accessible media to illustrate techniques and principles of sustainability and to spread information in a manner that is fun, colorful and easy to understand.  To learn more visit http://afristarfoundation.org/

– See more at: https://www.gardentowerproject.com/news/towerpower-blog#sthash.YjKtzXxt.dpuf

Afristar Foundation develops educational resources for schools, community programs and adult education in the form posters, educational documentaries and informational booklets. We make use of accessible media to illustrate techniques and principles of sustainability and to spread information in a manner that is fun, colorful and easy to understand.  To learn more visit http://afristarfoundation.org/

 

If you want to take this concept further — read on:

The following tables offer valuable insights for plant selection and design in a Garden Tower or conventional garden. 

Determine what plant(s) you would like to grow, check the table to learn which companion plants will help your desired plant thrive and which plants you should avoid planting adjacent to it!  Don’t be intimidated, it’s simpler than it looks! (use Firefox browser for the largest text!)

Vegetables: (Jump to Herbs or Flowers)

Common name Scientific name
Helps Helped by Attracts Repels Avoid Comments
Alliums Allium fruit trees, nightshades (tomatoes, capsicum peppers, potatoes), brassicas (cabbage, broccoli, kohlrabi, etc.) carrots carrots slugs, aphids, carrot fly, cabbage worms[1] beans, peas, parsley Alliums include onions, garlic, leeks, shallots, chives, and others
Asparagus Asparagus officinalis Tomatoes[2] Aster Family flowers, Dill, Coriander, Tomatoes, Parsley, Basil, Comfrey, Marigolds coupled with Basil seems to encourage lady bugs Onion, Garlic, Potatoes
Brassicas Brassica potatoes, cereals (e.g. corn, wheat) geraniums, dill, alliums (onions, shallots, garlic, etc.), rosemary, nasturtium, borage wireworms mustards, nightshades (tomatoes, peppers, etc.) Brassicas are a family of species which include broccoli, cabbage, Brussels sprouts, kohlrabi, and cauliflower.
Beans Phaseolus Corn (see Three Sisters), Spinach, lettuce, rosemary, summer savory, dill, carrots, brassicas, beets, radish, strawberry and cucumbers Eggplant, Summer savoury California beetles Tomatoes, chili peppers, alliums (onions, garlic, etc.), brassicas (cabbage, broccoli, etc.) Hosts nitrogen-fixing bacteria, a good fertiliser for some plants, too much for others
Beets Beta Vulgaris lettuce, kohlrabi, onions and brassicas Catnip, Garlic, Mint Runner or pole beans[2] Good for adding minerals to the soil through composting leaves which have up to 25% magnesium. Runner or pole beans and beets stunt each other’s growth.
Broccoli Brassica oleracea geraniums, dill, alliums, rosemary, nasturtium, borage mustards, Tomatoes, peppers Rosemary repels cabbage fly, geraniums trap cabbage worms, same general companion profile as all brassica (cabbage, kohlrabi, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, etc.)
Cabbage Brassica oleracea geraniums, dill, alliums, rosemary mustards, Tomatoes, peppers strawberries, and pole/runner beans Rosemary repels cabbage flies, geraniums trap cabbage worms, same general companion profile as all brassica (cabbage, kohlrabi, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, etc.)
Carrots Daucus carota Tomatoes, Alliums (onions, chives, etc.), lettuce alliums (leeks, shallots, etc.), rosemary, wormwood, sage, beans, flax assassin bug, lacewing, parasitic wasp, yellow jacket and other predatory wasps Dill, parsnip, radish Tomatoes grow better with carrots, but may stunt the carrots’ growth. Beans (which are bad for tomatoes) provide the nitrogen carrots need more than some other vegetables. Aromatic companion plants repel carrot fly. Alliums inter-planted with carrots confuse onion and carrot flies.
Celery Apium graveolens Cosmos, Daisies, Snapdragons corn, Aster flowers, these can transmit the aster yellows disease
Corn / Maize Zea mays beans Sunflowers, legumes (beans, peas, etc.), peanuts, cucurbits (squash, cucumbers, melons, etc.), amaranth, white geranium, lamb’s quarters, morning glory, parsley, and potato[2] Tomato, Celery Provides beans with a trellis, is protected from predators and dryness by cucurbits, in the three sisters technique
Cucumber Cucumis Sativus Nasturtiums, radishes, marigolds, sunflowers, peas, beets, carrots, and Dill Beneficial for ground beetles Tomato, Sage
Common name Scientific name Helps Helped by Attracts Repels Avoid Comments
Eggplant or Aubergine Solanum melongena Beans, Peppers Marigolds, tarragon, mints Marigolds will deter nematodes.
Leek Allium ampeloprasum v. porrum Celery, apple trees carrots cabbage worms, aphids, carrot fly, others Legumes (beans, peas, etc.), Swiss chard Same companion traits as all alliums (onions, garlic, shallots, chives, etc.)
Lettuce Lactuca sativa Radish, Kohlrabi, beans, carrots celery, cabbage, cress, parsley Mints (including hyssop, sage, and various “balms”) repel slugs, a bane of lettuce and cabbages
Mustard Brassicaceae, Sinapis alba Cabbage, cauliflower, radish, Brussels sprouts, turnips various pests Same general companion profile as all brassica (cabbage, kohlrabi, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, etc.)
Nightshades Solanaceae carrots, alliums, mints (basil, oregano, etc.) beans, black walnuts, corn, fennel, dill, brassica (broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, etc.) Nightshade plants include tomatoes, tobacco, chili peppers (including bell peppers), potatoes, eggplant, and others
Common name Scientific name Helps Helped by Attracts Repels Avoid Comments
Onion Allium cepa Tomatoes, brassicas (broccoli, cabbage, etc.) Carrots aphids, carrot fly, other pests Beans, lentils, peas, parsley Same companion traits as all other alliums (chives, garlic, shallots, leeks, etc.)
Peppers Solanaceae, Capsicum themselves, marjoram tomatoes, geraniums, petunias Tomato Hornworm beans, kale (cabbage, Brussels sprouts, etc.) Pepper plants like high humidity, which can be helped along by planting with some kind of dense-leaf companion, like marjoram and basil; they also need direct sunlight, but their fruit can be harmed by it…pepper plants grown together, or with tomatoes, can shelter the fruit from sunlight, and raises the humidity level.
Potato Solanum tuberosum Horseradish Atriplex, carrot, cucumber, onion, raspberries, squash, sunflower, tomato Horseradish increases the disease resistance of potatoes
Parsnip Pastinaca Sativa fruit trees a variety of predatory insects The flowers of the parsnip plant left to seed will attract a variety of predatory insects to the garden, they are particularly helpful when left under fruit trees, the predators attacking codling moth and light brown apple moth. The root also contains Myristricin, which is toxic to fruit flies, house flies, red spider mite, pea aphids.
Pumpkin and other Squash Curcurbita spp corn, beans Buckwheat, catnip, tansy, radishes Spiders, Ground Beetles Radishes can be used as a trap crop against flea beetles, Curcurbita can be used in the three sisters technique
Radish Rafanus Sativus squash, eggplant, cucumber,[2] lettuce flea beetles, cucumber beetles Radishes can be used as a trap crop against flea beetles
Spinach Spinacia oleracea Peas, Beans The peas and beans provide natural shade for the spinach
Tomatoes Solanum lycopersicum roses, peppers, asparagus basil,[3] oregano, parsley, carrots, marigold, Alliums, celery, Geraniums, Petunias, Nasturtium, Borage, any type of onion or chives Tomato Hornworm asparagus beetle Black walnut, corn, fennel, peas, dill, potatoes, beetroot, brassicas (kohlrabi, cabbage, etc.), rosemary Dill attracts tomato hornworm.

Growing basil 10 inches apart from tomatoes can increase the yield of tomatoes by about 20%.[3]

 

                                                              

Herbs:       

Common name Scientific name Helps Helped by Attracts Repels Avoid Comments
Basil Ocimum basilicum tomato,[3] peppers, oregano, asparagus, petunias chamomile, anise butterflies asparagus beetle, mosquitoes, thrips and flies common rue is said to make tomatoes taste better, chamomile and anise are supposed to increase the essential oils in many herbs like basil
Borage Borago officinalis Almost everything, especially strawberry, cucurbits (cucumber, gourds), tomatoes and cabbage Predatory insects, honeybees many pests Predict a square meter for its adult size. Borage is the magic bullet of companion plants
Caraway Carum carvi Strawberries Parasitic wasps, parasitic flies
Chamomile Matricaria recutita Basil, Wheat, Onion, Cabbage, Cucumber Hoverflies, wasps Growing near herbs will increase their oil production.
Chervil Anthriscus cerefolium Radish, lettuce, broccoli aphids radish loves shade, fortunately it grows well with shade-tolerant food plants; will make radishes grown near it taste spicier
Cilantro / Coriander Coriandrum sativum spinach beans, peas tachinid fly aphids, spider mites, white flies and potato beetle
Chives Allium schoenoprasum Apples, carrots, tomatoes, brassica (broccoli, cabbage, mustard, etc.), many others carrots cabbage worms, carrot fly, aphids beans, peas Same companion traits as all alliums (onions, garlic, shallots, leeks, etc.)said to prevent apple scab after 3 years planting at base of apple trees
Common name Scientific name Helps Helped by Attracts Repels Avoid Comments
Dill Anethum graveolens Cabbages, Corn, Lettuce, Onions, Cucumbers Tiger Swallowtail butterflies/ caterpillars, Hoverflies, Wasps, Tomato Hornworm, honeybees, Ichneumonid Wasps Aphids, spider mites, squash bugs, cabbage looper carrots, tomatoes one of the few plants said to grow with fennel
Fennel Foeniculum vulgare Dill Dill ladybugs, syrphid fly, tachinid fly aphids Almost everything Fennel is allelopathic to most garden plants, inhibiting growth, causing to bolt, or actually killing many plants
Garlic Allium sativum Apple trees, Pear trees, Roses, Cucumbers, Lettuce, Celery Aphids, cabbage looper, ants, rabbits, cabbage maggot, vampires Beans, cabbages, peas Deters rabbits, same companion traits as all alliums (onions, chives, shallots, leeks, etc.)
Hemp Cannabis sativa L. subsp. sativa Brassica (cabbage, brussels sprouts, other kales) Repels many types of beetles which attack cabbages.
Hyssop Hyssopus officinalis Cabbage, grapes honeybees, butterflies Cabbage moth larvae, Cabbage Butterflies Stimulates growth of grapes.
Lovage Levisticum officinale Almost all plants beans Ichneumonid Wasps, ground beetles (good) rhubarb Is thought to improve the health of almost all plants, like borage and geraniums, is considered a “magic bullet” of companion planting
Oregano Origanum vulgare Tomatoes, peppers, many other plants basil aphids provides ground cover and much-needed humidity for pepper plants if allowed to spread among them
Parsley Petroselinum Crispum Asparagus, corn/maize, tomatoes Swallowtail Butterflies, wasps, flies Alliums, lettuce Sacrificially attracts insects that predate upon tomatoes
Common name Scientific name Helps Helped by Attracts Repels
Avoid Comments
Peppermint Mentha piperita Brassica (cabbage, kholrabi, broccoli, and the other kales) cabbage fly, ants, cabbage looper Repels cabbage flies, has same general companion properties as other mints
Rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis sage, cabbage, beans, carrots, thyme bean beetle basil Deters cabbage flies, repels many bean parasites
Sage Salvia officinalis rosemary, cabbage, beans, carrots honeybees, cabbage butterfly cabbage flies, carrot fly, black flea beetle, cabbage looper, cabbage maggot Deters cabbage flies, repels many bean parasites
Southern- wood Artemisia abrotanum Fruit trees Controls cabbage moths and malaria mosquitoes.
Spearmint Mentha spicata ants, aphids Controls ants and aphids, has same general companion properties as other mints.
Summer Savoury Satureja hortensis Green beans, onions, also delays germination of certain foul herbs
Tansy Tanacetum vulgare beans, cucurbits (cucumbers, squash, etc.), corn, roses honeybees flying insects (Ichneumonid Wasps), Japanese beetles, striped cucumber beetles, squash bugs and ants Is reputed to generally repel insects (except for nectar-eating types). This herb should not be consumed, as it is quite toxic.
Tarragon Artemisia dracunculus Everything, but especially eggplant Its scent is disliked by most pests, and this plant is also thought to have Nurse Plant properties, enhancing the growth and flavor of crops grown with it.
Thyme Cabbage and broccoli Deters white fly

 

                                                         

Flowers:

Common Name Scientific Name Helps Helped by Attracts Repels
Avoid Comments
Geraniums Pelargonium spp. Roses, corn, peppers, grapes leafhoppers, Japanese beetles Tomatoes, Tobacco, Eggplants and other nightshades A trap crop, attracting pests away from roses and grape vines, distracts beet leafhoppers, carrier of the curly top virus, keep away from Solanaceous plants like eggplant, and tobacco
Lupin Lupinus Cucurbits, brassica, lettuce, rosemary, dill, strawberry summer savory Honeybees tomatoes and other solanaceae This wildflower is a legume, hosting bacteria that fixes nitrogen in the soil, fertilizing it for neighboring plants
Marigold Asteraceae Calendula Tagetes most plants, especially tomatoes and peppers, cucurbits (cucumbers, gourds, squash), brassicas (broccoli, kale, cabbage) snails nematodes, beet leaf hoppers, other pests Marigolds are a wonder-drug of the companion plant world, invoking the saying “plant them everywhere in your garden”. French marigolds produce a pesticidal chemical from their roots, so strong it lasts years after they are gone. Mexican marigolds do the same, but are so strong they will inhibit the growth of some more tender herbs. Certain Varieties of marigolds (Tagetes) can help manage eelworms (Root-knot nematode) when planted the year before [1].

Tagetes has also been found effective against perennial weeds such as Ranunculus ficaria (Celandine), Aegopodium podagraria (Ground elder), Glechoma hederacea (Ground ivy), Agropyron repens (Couch grass), Convolvulus arvensis (Field bindweed), Equisetum arvense (Field/Common Horsetail) and other ‘starchy’ weeds.[citation needed]

Petunia Petunia x hybrida cucurbits (squash, pumpkins, cucumbers), asparagus leafhoppers, Japanese beetles, aphids, asparagus beetle Is a trap crop almost identical to geraniums in function
Nasturtium Tropaeolum majus Many plants, especially cucurbits (melons, cucumbers, gourds), beans, tomatoes, apple trees, brassicas (broccoli, cabbage, etc.), radish predatory insects aphids, cabbage looper, squash bug, white fly, cucumber beetles radish, cauliflower Both work as trap crops for aphids, is among the best at attracting predatory insects[citation needed]
Sunflower Helianthus annuus corn, tomatoes aphids Was grown as a companion for corn(maize) before modern Europeans arrived in the Americas, supposedly increases their production, ants herd aphids onto sunflowers, keeping them off neighboring plants
Tansy Tanacetum vulgare cucurbits (cucumbers, squash, etc.), raspberries and relatives, roses, corn sugar ants, Japanese beetles, cucumber beetles, squash bugs, mice Toxic to many animals, don’t plant it where livestock browse
Yarrow Achillea millefolium many plants predatory wasps, ladybugs, hoverflies, damselbugs May increase the essential oil production of some herbs. Also improves soil quality, use the leaves to enrich compost, or as mulch.
Zinnia Zinnia beans, tomatoes, peppers whiteflies Attracts hummingbirds that eat whitflies, attracts pollinators

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Modified From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_companion_plants

References & Footnotes:

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