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Kristi Armes

Introducing Native Hole-nesting Bees to Your Garden

How to support your garden and your bee community without the effort of raising honeybees – This is the first of three useful guest blogs by our pollinator-supporting friends over at Crown Bees of Woodinville, Washington.

 

Planting a food garden is a labor of love. Gardeners put so much time and effort into the work of creating and maintaining a garden, but we don’t always give much thought to pollination. We tend to take bees and their work for granted because bee populations have historically been robust and thriving.

 

Many gardeners wish they could raise honeybees to ensure their garden’s pollination but raising honeybees takes a lot of time, money and training. And some communities don’t allow honey beekeeping because of safety concerns. The problems facing honeybee populations are well known and honeybees are not the only bees suffering due to habitat loss, pollution, disease, and climate change.

 

Alternative bees to the rescue:

Blue orchard mason bee

Mason bees and leafcutter bees are alternatives to honey bees that gardeners can rely on and they are better pollinators, easier to raise, cheaper, and most importantly, safer for children.

Blue orchard mason bees (Osmia lignaria) are one of North America’s 3,600 native bee species (honey bees are from Europe). Alfalfa leafcutter bees were introduced in the 1940’s in order to save and maintain the alfalfa feed industry. Alfalfa leafcutter bees are now naturalized across North America. Both mason and leafcutter bees are solitary, hole-nesting bees that are superior pollinators and we can raise in our gardens and farms.

 

Female blue orchard mason bee covered in pollen. Photo by Jacob Dunphy.

 

 

Why are they superior pollinators?

Honey bees carry pollen packed wet onto special hairy plates on their hind legs. Mason and leafcutter bees don’t have these special structures on their legs, instead they have special hairs on the underside of their bellies. Pollen is carried dry and loose on the large surface area of their hairy bellies and pollen falls off easily at every flower visited. One mason bee can carry out the pollination action of 100-200 honeybees!

 

 

Mason bees emerge in cooler, wetter, and windier weather than honey bees. Mason and leafcutter bees have a short flying range from their nests to flowers of only 300 feet. Mason and leafcutter bees are not picky about the flowers they visit. Because they are generalists, you can be assured that they are staying close to their home and pollinating your gardens and orchards. Almost every bee, except for a social queen, has a flying life span of about 4-6 weeks. Each solitary mason and leafcutter female bee has a feeling of urgency to get their parenting duties done and this makes them wake up earlier, stay out later, and fly in worse weather.

 

 

Are they really gentle and easy to raise?

Because they don’t have a colony and stores of honey and pollen to protect, solitary bees are typically much less aggressive and don’t mind you watching them come and go to their nesting house.

 

Solitary bees overwinter in cocoons, making them easy to handle and move. The steps for raising mason and leafcutter bees are really simple: set up the bee house and nesting materials, release cocoons, wait as they work, protect filled nesting materials, harvest cocoons, repeat! There’s no need to feed and upkeep honey stores in the winter since the bees are sleeping in cocoons.

 

 

 

Male leafcutter bees have green eyes and golden hair. Photo by Demarus Sandlin.

 

 

What are solitary bees?

Honey bees and bumblebees are social bees with only one fertile female bee in the colony. We all know social bees pretty well and we grew up learning about how they live. But actually, almost 99% of the world’s 21,000+ bee species do not live in social structures. Non-social bees are called solitary bees and every solitary bee is fertile. Each solitary female bee lives and works on her own and she has all the responsibility to take care of her young.

 

 

What are hole-nesting bees?

About 70% of bee species build their nests underground and individual bees can share a main tunnel entrance. About 30% of bees nest in holes like an old grub tunnel in dead wood or the hollow of a branch or stem. We can’t raise ground-nesting bees very easily but we can raise hole-nesting bees because we can recreate their nesting holes, harvest their cocoons, and move them to where we need them. Solitary bees do not live in hives, instead we call the structures we build for them bee houses.

 

A female mason bee rests in her nesting hole, a natural lake reed. Photo by Tim Krogh.

 

 

A female bee claims a nesting hole as her own and starts building nesting chambers in the very back of the hole first. Each nesting chamber is made up of a mix of pollen and nectar (called a pollen loaf), a single egg, and a protective wall. Mason bees use moist clayey mud to build walls between nesting chambers. Leafcutter bees build protective leafy cocoons, all in a line, with

each cocoon separated from each other with a layer of leaves. When the female is done with one nesting hole she protects the nest with an extra thick layer of nest building material called a capped end. These capped ends let us know that the bee house was used.

 

 

Which bees are right for me?

Mason bees emerge in the early spring when weather is consistently warmer than 55*F. They are great pollinators of fruit and nut trees and blueberry and strawberry bushes. Leafcutter bees emerge in early summer when the weather warms above 70*F. Leafcutter bees pollinate melon, squash, pea, and summer vegetables and flowers.

 

You can raise both bees in the same bee house, just swap out nesting materials from mason bees and replace it with leafcutter materials. Mason bees prefer 8mm nesting holes and leafcutter bees prefer 6mm sized nesting holes.

 

 

Ensure your garden’s pollination

Raising mason and leafcutter bees will help your garden grow more and grow better fruit and vegetables. Many flowers need to be visited many times in order to grow fruit at all. For example, a pear flower needs to be pollinated 30 times to make fruit! A flower that is properly pollinated will grow fruit that is rounder, fuller, and healthier. Adding a different bee species to your garden or farm can increase your yield by 24%! All of the effort that you put into your garden will be rewarded when you raise gentle solitary hole-nesting bees.

 

 

Want to get started?

 

See our native bee keeping supplies and pollinator kits at this link:

 

(Click here)

https://gardentowerproject.com/shop/product-category/pollinators-native-bee-supplies/

 

 

 

 

Copyright

© Garden Tower Project, Crown Bees

Joel Grant

Organic Pest Control Guide for your Garden

Organic Pest Control Guide for your Garden

A visual guide to proven organic, integrated pest management in your Garden 

 

This fantastic infographic will help you identify common garden pests, proactively plan to prevent infestations, and naturally control insects, fungus, and other garden critters out to harm your veggies!  Here at Garden Tower Project, we use a combination of water, neem oil, and natural liquid soap as our go-to all purpose insect control on herbs, veggies, and flowers. 

 

(click the graphic below to enlarge!)

Organic Pest Control Guide for your Garden

Source: http://nycitypestcontrol.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/Pest-Controlling-Your-Garden-New.png

 

For more information on insect pest management of your Garden or Garden Tower, visit our earlier article: Integrating Pest Management

Guest

Integrating Pest Management

Integrating Pest Management

If you grow it, they will come. Pests.

 

Problems of all kinds crop up in the garden. Beginning gardeners sometimes get discouraged by the loss of a crop. It happens to everyone somtime—and often more than once. Don get discouraged! There are some things you can do to ensure your success and lessen the likelihood of unwelcome guests in the garden.  You should also prepare for losses. In this blog, we'll cover: 

How much can you tolerate and what are the effects of pests?

Why Integrated Pest Management?

Steps for Success

 

Caterpillars on kale_rkb.JPGHow much can you take? 

Knowledge and experience will help you avoid losses, but some losses are inevitable. Having organic, fresh, nutrient-dense foods means produce doesn’t look perfect. That’s okay! The flavor and health in that food makes it superior!

 

Expect 10% losses—sometimes 30%! You can lose a small part of your harvest before it affects you. By using permaculture principle 1 (Observe and Interact) every day, you will know when something changes.  Sometimes a seeming pest benefits the plants.

 

A short story: when I began my permaculture system, I was growing a lot of dill (more on that below). We had a caterpillar begin to seriously munch on the dill leaves. It turns out that it was a tiger swallowtail butterfly caterpillar. My young daughter and I enjoyed watching the caterpillars grow fat on the dill. We thought of the butterflies they would become. After the caterpillars wandered off to their cocoons I realizes that they’d pruned back the dill plants. They did this right before the strongest heat and light of the summer. All the dill plants made it through the heat waves—and there was plenty of dill for everyone!

 

Why integrated pest management?

Your food will be healthier for you and your family. You will have healthier food and environment by using integrated methods and avoiding toxins. What is better for you is also better for everything else in the environment. Beneficial insects, bacteria and fungi can find their balance in your garden. You also help reduce the build-up of pesticide resistance. So if you really do have to resort to using something, it will be more effective.

 

When you do have to intervene, experiment with what will work on that pest. What worked for a friend may not work for you: be willing to try different things! Also recognize that what might work for you one year, might not be appropriate the next year.

beetles on milkweed_rkb.jpg 

Setting up for Success

 

1. Plant a polyculture. This strategy has a lot of benefits. Companion planting is one step in the right direction. It puts plants that feed on different soil nutrients or that deter pests of the neighboring plants together. Go a step further and plant a true polyculture—mixing many types of plants together. Continuously rearranging plants in the garden avoids predictable patterns and keeps pests confused. This strategy can be an effective means of keeping populations distributed and creating opportunities for pest predators and beneficial organisms to find their niches, too.

 

Polycultures are more like natural ecosystems. They create lots of variety—in contrast to monoculture cropping. For a potato beetle, a few rows of potato monoculture looks like a buffet. When potatoes are mixed in with perennials, flowers, veggies and especially fragrant herbs, insects are more confused. A few may find your plants, but it is not likely to be hordes.

 

Another thing is to use plants that attract pest predators. By encouraging a rich ecosystem, it can correct itself. Plants in the carrot family (dill, fennel, Queen Anne’s lace, etc…) attract predatory wasps. Don’t worry, these guys aren’t interested in you! Praying mantis and ladybugs showed up in our polyculture in the second season and have been increasing in numbers ever since. Spiders are helpful, too—though you may never see them.

 b2ap3_thumbnail_IMG_1446.jpg

Use strong smelling herbs and flowers (like marigold) to confuse insects that rely on smell to locate your favorite veggies!

 

If you grow in containers—like the Garden Tower—your ecosystem is small, but still active. Choosing your plants and arranging them with these tips in mind will help you achieve better plant health.

 

2. Space plants for good air flow and light penetration.  Besides insect pests, bacterial and fungal problems can affect your garden yields. Soil fertility and management allow us to pack plants in, we want to make sure there is adequate air flow to discourage fungal growth. Breezes also discourage insects from settling on your plants. Good air-flow spacing also means plants get adequate light saturation to be productive. Remove dead or dying or infected leaves from plants.

 

3. Plant and harvest at the right time:   By planting late or early and harvesting at the right time, you can avoid a wave of pests and their lifecycles. Last year, I planted winter squash around the fourth of July. By doing this I avoided the squash vine borer that can devastate a crop, but I also didn’t get much of a crop from the vines (which grew vigorously).  This year, I’ll plant more plants and hope to get a better yield. It also turns out last year wasn’t a big year for vine borers.

 

4.  Know what you’re dealing with:  Identify the pests first. If you need help, send a picture or sample to a county extension agent or directly to your state’s land grant university. The agricultural programs at these universities may have different recommendations for you about what to do, but their knowledge and experience can be very helpful.

 

5. Support pest predators: Predatory wasps do love the carrot family (mentioned above). If you have an abundance of these foods in your garden, the wasps will come to live with you—and lay their eggs on the caterpillars of pests. Setting up homes for frogs, lizards, and birds and making water and spaces available to them will help to create a natural balance.

 

6. Use sacrifice crops: Plant extras of things that pests love and be willing to sacrifice some of them to the pests in exchange for more of what you want.

 

 

These are some passive ways to organize your garden to deal with pests. Pest management techniques also range into using traps (like a shallow pan of beer for slugs) and repellants of all kinds. Many of these are sold commercially and work well. Recipes for sprays also abound and most of the ingredients (like cayenne pepper) are common to your household. 

 

Try some of these techniques and report back to us on how it went!

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